By Ronald J. Mann
This ebook tells the tale of charge cards all over the world: why humans use them, the results at the economies of the countries the place they be triumphant, why they're used so another way all over the world, and what could be performed to reply to the issues they reason. It incorporates a wealth of information from all over the world, attention-grabbing narratives in regards to the alterations from state to kingdom, and penetrating analyses of rules that may stem misuse of playing cards.
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Extra resources for Charging Ahead: The Growth and Regulation of Payment Card Markets
Let us start with the point that is easiest to see: a distinction between paper and electronic systems – cash and checks versus plastic cards. 3 Similarly, at the pizza/entertainment chains that attract young children, a parent can see the dissipation of resources proceeding much more effectively at the venues that issue simple stored-value cards than at the venues that issue quarter-sized tokens to meter use. Part of it is the pure ease of the transaction. The ease obscures precisely what is occurring, so we notice less if a particular game costs 25, 50, or 75 cents than we would if we deposited three separate tokens.
Bank transfer systems – account-to-account or A2A payments in the conventional terminology – result in a payment directly from one bank account to another. A2A payments have not been important in Internet commerce to date, largely because until 2001 the ACH network did not permit consumers to authorize nonrecurring transactions on the network. Yet the search for new market niches, coupled with continuing merchant dissatisfaction about the high costs of accepting credit cards, led NACHA (the main proprietor of the ACH network) in 2001 to permit a new type of entry (a “WEB” entry in NACHA terminology) that permits such payments.
On the Internet, a wholly electronic currency promises advantages of higher security, lower costs (especially for lowvalue “microtransactions”), and greater user privacy. To date, however, electronic currency systems have foundered, generally because there has not been sufficiently broad deployment to make the product costeffective. At bottom, there has been relatively limited consumer interest in the privacy and security benefits of electronic money, and thus it seems unlikely that electronic money will dominate Internet commerce in the foreseeable future.