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Download Cosmopolitanism, Self-Determination and Territory: Justice by Oliviero Angeli PDF

By Oliviero Angeli

Rights over territory are to so much cosmopolitans these days what deepest estate was once to nineteenth-century socialists: a legally sanctioned institutionalization of robbery. within the cosmopolitan mind's eye, territories are similar to a protracted background of illegal acts and their barriers do not anything yet draw arbitrary differences among populations. This learn strikes past this photo of territory as a trifling item of domination and exploitation to supply a brand new standpoint at the conventional cosmopolitan knowing of territory. It explores the method through which humans represent themselves as territorially outlined political groups and argues that the precise of collective self-determination encompasses a legally and politically inclusive idea of territories as non-ascriptive markers of belonging. by means of interpreting the consequences of this argument, the textual content addresses debatable problems with modern political philosophy: citizenship, immigration, usual assets and, extra quite often, international distributive justice.

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While the a priori method deduces principles of natural law directly from the rational and social nature of human beings, the a posteriori method appeals to the testimonies of philosophers and historians. Now that any Thing is or is not by the Law of Nature, is generally proved either à priori, that is, by Arguments drawn from the very Nature of the Thing; or à posteriori, that is, by Reasons taken from something external. The former Way of Reasoning is more subtle and abstracted; the latter more popular.

A natural starting point for a genealogy of the territorial state is therefore a world with no territorial states and no land ownership. The more difficult answer is that common ownership of the world is a condition of equality – and equality is the default position of (early) modern genealogies. Natural law theorists regard the acquisition or privatization of land and goods as a prima facie departure from a commitment to human equality. I say ‘prima facie’, because what Grotius, Locke and Kant purport to show is precisely that territorial rights and property can be reconciled with the ideal of equality.

Maine, 1930). In line with this notion, Grotius’ accords the moral right to exclude to an occupant in virtue of that occupant not having dispossessed anyone else. However, as Jeremy Waldron has argued, ‘violently dispossessing another person or another people is not the be-all and end-all of injustice, and it’s not the only basis on which we might raise a moral question mark over an entitlement. Refusing to share resources with others is also a form of injustice; refusing to modify a holding based on First Occupancy in response to demographic or other changes in circumstances is an injustice.

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