By A. J. Clark (auth.)
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Extra info for General Pharmacology
SUMNER and MYRBACK, 1930 2 ), whilst quinine produces full action on invertase in a time too short to be measured (RONA and BLOCH, 1921 3 ). In other cases the action is slower, for example atoxyl takes 15 to 30 minutes to produce its full action on serum lipase (RONA and BACH, 1920 4 ), but in this case it is probable that the pentavalent atoxyl is reduced to a trivalent form before it produces its effect. In some cases the influence of concentration on rate of action is very erratic. c. reduced the time until half action was produced from 30 min.
Under ordinary experimental conditions the oxygen is present in such great excess that its concentration does not alter, and only the change of state of the haemoglobin need be considered. The simplest condition is when one molecule of oxygen unites with one haem group and each haem group can associate or dissociate with oxygen independently. If x = oxygen pressure and y = percentage of total haem groups that are oxidised, then the following general formula can be applied: Kx = 100Y- --' y With this formula the relation between oxygen concentration (x) and oxyhaemoglobin (y) follows a rectangular hyperbola.
It is instructive to consider the complexities that are met when the actions of drugs on these simple catalysts are measured accurately, because such a study provides a hint as to what must be expected when more complex systems are studied. The following are the chief points that have been established regarding the actions of catalyst poisons. The activity of a metal surface is due to the presence of certain active patches which only constitute a very small fraction of the total surface. These active patches differ qualitatively both as regards their catalytic action and as regards their sensitivity to drugs.