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By Richard Foster Flint

GLACIAL GEOLOGY and the Pleistocene Epoch by means of Richard Foster Flint Professor of Geology in xmas college ny JOHN WILEY SONS, Inc. London CHAPMAN corridor, constrained To the reminiscence of MAX DEMOREST 1910-1942 remarkable glaciologist, first-class box better half, beneficiant and considerate good friend, who died to avoid wasting the lives of others. November 30, 1942 PREFACE The Pleistocene epoch occupies a specifically vital position within the time scale of geology, for it embraces the occasions of the newest million or extra years within the heritage of the Earth and is for this reason so fresh that it bridges the distance among the geologic alterations now in growth and the extra distant previous. while the paintings of the geologist is done, wrote Gilbert, 1 and his ultimate finished document written, the longest and most vital bankruptcy might be upon the newest and shortest of the geo good judgment sessions. The bankruptcy can be longest as the extraordinary complete ness of the list of the newest interval will permit him to set forth such a lot thoroughly its advanced heritage. The adjustments of every interval its erosion, its sedimentation, and its metamorphism obliterate a part of the files of its predecessor and of all prior sessions, in order that the order of our wisdom needs to remain, because it now could be, the inverse order in their antiquity. This truth in itself furnishes an sufficient explanation for making the prin cipal evidence of the Pleistocene epoch compactly on hand, not just to geologists but additionally to Geologists, archeologists, geographers, and . others whose stories achieve again into the prehistoric realm. additionally, the elevated velocity of analysis upon Pleistocene difficulties normally, and difficulties in glacial geology specifically, that has been obtrusive over the past twenty years has emphasised the need, during this box, of a precis that might be right away a connection with the knowledge already tested and a method of indicating the parts and difficulties within which additional learn is such a lot wanted. those are the imperative targets of the current quantity. nobody is familiar with greater than its writer that it falls wanting reach ing them. wisdom of the Pleistocene has grown to such an quantity entire reference paintings could develop into an encyclopedia. the resultant necessity for condensation has required the workout of selective judgment at each flip. The record of references on the finish of the publication is way from whole, notwithstanding an earnest attempt has been made to determine that it really is consultant. specifically it may possibly lack vital titles that experience seemed in a few nations in the course of the struggle years and that experience now not but been commonly dispensed. 1 Gilbert 1890, p. 1. viii PREFACE This dialogue treats the Pleistocene frankly from the viewpoint of glaciation, the exceptional attribute that distinguishes the Pleisto cene from the epochs that preceded it. The a bit of bulky name was once chosen with this truth in brain, in an attempt to not create the effect that the paintings is a completely balanced remedy of each part of the Pleistocene. As is mentioned in bankruptcy sixteen, the correlations of Pleistocene occasions brought up and recommended are, so far as attainable, these according to geologic facts instead of on archeologic proof. within the presentation of geologic proof itself stream-terrace information are used as low as attainable within the trust that this classification of information is extra often topic to defective interpretation than the knowledge acquired from beneficial properties of alternative varieties. particularly this ebook avoids, in correlation, deduction from any idea of Pleistocene climatic fluctuation which units up a hard and fast chronology of occasions. This conservative perspective is followed at the precept that simply while the stratigraphic column is outfitted up strictly on geologic facts can the impression of prejudice in prefer of a selected conception of weather be avoided...

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Glacial geology and the Pleistocene epoch,

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A condition of continual change, thickening or thinning, increasor ing decreasing in area, sensitively responding to the slight changes in It is in climate that continually affect it. No two successive years are exactly alike in the amount of snow that falls or in the amount of heat that reaches the Earth's surface at any place. In their sensitive reaction to climatic differences in successive years, decades, and centuries, glaciers examined over periods of many years arc perhaps the most delicate climatic indicators to which we have access.

Although characteristic of glaciers that broad glaciers that end lie in water, calving occurs also in glaciers that end on land, provided outward very steeply. 2 The three processes by which their floors slope glaciers lose substance spoken of as wastage. melting, evaporation, and calving are together CALVING Some further information about calving should be recorded. Where is more rapid at the waterline than either a glacier ends in water, melting 2 Cf. Bretz 1933, p. 197, and legend to fig. 285.

When released from the confining pressure of a container, the body of water will immediately change its shape by flowing. On the other hand ice, in with all solids, possesses some rigidity. In consequence a body common of ice, when released from confining pressure, will begin to flow only overcome its rigidity. If the ice after the application of force sufficient to is thick enough', the pressure caused by its own weight will start the process of flow. Once the ice has begun to flow it apparently obeys the laws of fluid mechanics.

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