By Percy Williams Bridgman
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Extra info for On the application of thermodynemics to the thermo-electric circuit
1 Safety Technical standards, and thus system layouts and inverter concepts, differ from country to country. 2 10 1 5 0 0 1100−1150 15 1000−1050 3 900−950 20 800−850 4 700−750 25 600−650 5 500−550 30 400−450 6 300−350 35 200−250 7 100−150 40 0−50 8 Irradiation in W/m² FIGURE 10 Distribution of the energy yield of a PV system in southern Germany. The bars show the energy content for each class of irradiation, and the line shows the probability of the occurrence of this class with respect to time.
Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 9, 123–126. Iles, P. A. (1998). From Vanguard to Pathfinder: Forty years of solar cells in space. ’’ Vol. 1, pp. LXVII–LXX. European Commission, Ispra (VA), Italy. Iles, P. A. (2000). Future of photovoltaics for space applications. Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 8(1), 39–51. Iles, P. A. (2001). Evolution of space solar cells. Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 68, 1–13. Perlin, J. (1999). ’’ Aztec, Ann Arbor, MI. Rauschenbach, H. S. (1980). ’’ Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Maintenance and repair: Over the course of many years of operation, maintenance is crucial. The * * * * Photovoltaic Energy: Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Systems system must be as easy to maintain as possible. Also, the availability of spare parts may be crucial. Voltage stability and quality of power supply: Quality of power supply does not only include the availability of power and energy but also the quality and stability of the voltage. Especially in AC-coupled systems, this implies strong demand for fast current and voltage control.